Methodologies, Approaches and Techniques

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This page provides brief reviews of common approaches, methodologies, and classroom techniques in Second Language pedagogy.



Conversation Analysis Contributions to SLA

Cooperative Learning

Cognitive Code

Whole Language


Marjorie Lipson

CALL-Computer Assisted Language Learning

Computer Assisted Instruction in ESL (E. Vockell)

Caring and Sharing Approach

Communicative Approach

Community Language Learning

Counseling Learning (CL)

Direct Method

English for Special Purposes

Games: A Communicational Approach (Harvey)

Grammar Induction/ Easification (Blair)

Grammar Translation

Linguistic Model for Learning Living (Curran)


Natural Approach

Notional Functional Approach

Participatory Approach

Semantic Mapping: Vocabulary Development (D. Pearson)

Sheltered English

Silent Way

Sociolinguistic Contributions to SLA

Earl Stevick

Strategic Interaction Approach (Pietro)

Student Learner- Centered Instruction

Suggestopedia (Lozanov)

Total Physical Response (TPR)

Post Methodological Approaches

Bilingual Approaches

Critical Thinking

Methods for Listening

Methods for Pronunciation

Methods for Reading

Methods for Speaking

Methods for Writing

Story Telling

Using Drama

Using email/ the Internet

Using Literature

Using Songs and Music

Critical Pedagogy