While Marjorie Lipsonís work concerns itself
primarily with literacy of school children, the following suggestions
can be applied to ESL instruction in all skill areas.
- Basal readers are insufficient as the basis of reading programs.
- A studentís erroneous prior knowledge is more detrimental to
learning new skills than no prior knowledge.
- Accommodate differences of prior knowledge through constructive
interaction synthesizing prior knowledge, the text, the reading
situation or context. This constructive process takes place in both
reading and writing.
- Accommodate differences in reading knowledge and skill within
a class by 1) limiting the scope of the information search at
any given time 2) creating an information index with students,
3) varying the response mode.
- Accommodate differences in prior knowledge: study vocabulary
that challenges both decoding abilities and vocabulary that
builds the conceptual framework of the text.
- Word Wonder (Speigel 1984) Teacher suggests a theme,
students produce words they THINK will follow.
- List, Group, Label (Tiernes, Reading, Dishner 1985): Group
words into sublists and create titles for sublists.
- Explanation Outline (Speigel 1984)
- Accommodate Differences in Comprehension
- Semantic Mapping
- Fanning ( Similar to mapping but motivated by 3 levels of
questions: text implicit, text explicit, and personal)
- Story Maps
- Teach Strategies (Cooper)
- Identifying Important Information
- Generating Questions
- Strategies are selected to accomplish a particular goal.
- The purpose of evaluation is to inform instruction , contribute to
the cycle of improving method in the goal of facilitating learning.
Evaluation is not an ends in itself.
- Make a strategy poster
- Make reading public: cooperative work groups.
How does the institution of national testing inform
instruction and facilitate learning in a meaningful time frame?
- Lipson, M. Y. (1984). Some unexpected issues to prior knowledge;
The Reading Teacher, 37, 760-76
- Lipson, M. Y., Bigler, M., Poth, L., & Wickizer, B. ;
Instructional applications of a verbal report methodology: The
effects of thinking aloud on comprehension ability. Paper
presented at the 37th annual meeting of the National Reading
Conference, St. Petersburg, FL.; Dec. 1987
- Cross, D. R., & Lipson, M.Y. ; Informed strategies for
learning: A program to improve children's reading awareness and
comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology; 76,1239-1252;
- Paris, S. G., Lipson, M.Y., &Wixson, K. K.; Becoming a
strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293-316;